Torrefaction vs. Carbonization:
Alterna Energy of Canada presented on their carbonization program. (Charcoal)
An inspiring presentation. The business is up and running and generating revenue, with two plants in operation. The plant in South America is co-located with a nut processing facility so they have access to shells as a low cost waste steam. In South America, they sell charcoal as a retail cooking fuel. (higher price). Unfortunately, high priced cooking fuel or sales of industrial charcoal do not a large scale renewable energy business make.
However, Alterna Energy may be able to get there first because part of their plant cost is covered by sales of industrial charcoal. This is one to watch.